Birth defects journal

Journal of Birth Defects is an official Open Access, peer-reviewed, scholarly research journal which aims to share the latest and advance information, studies and researches related to causes, diagnosis and treatments of birth defects Birth Defects Research. In January 2017, the journals Birth Defects Research Part A, Birth Defects Research Part B and Birth Defects Research Part C were merged and re-launched as the unified journal Birth Defects Research.. The present website contains BDRA legacy content through December 2016 The official journal of the Society for Birth Defects Research and Prevention. The journal Birth Defects Research publishes original research and reviews in areas related to the etiology of adverse developmental and reproductive outcome. In particular the journal is devoted to the publication of original scientific research that contributes to the understanding of the biology of embryonic.

Journal of Birth Defects Insight Medical Publishin

Images Show Zika's Destruction of Babies' Brains

Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular

The Journal Impact 2019-2020 of Birth Defects Research is 1.830, which is just updated in 2020.The Journal Impact Quartile of Birth Defects Research is Q2.The Journal Impact of an academic journal is a scientometric factor that reflects the yearly average number of citations that recent articles published in a given journal received. It is frequently used as a factor for the relative. Accordingly, the journal Birth Defects Research takes an integrated, multidisciplinary approach in its organization and publication strategy. The journal Birth Defects Research contains separate sections for clinical and molecular teratology, developmental and reproductive toxicology, and reviews in developmental biology to acknowledge and accommodate the integrative nature of research in this. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of pregnancy. One out of every 33 babies in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the body looks, works, or both. Some birth defects like cleft lip or neural tube defects are structural problems that can be easy t

Society for Birth Defects Research and Preventio

Birth Defects is an Open Access journal and we do not charge the end user when accessing a manuscript or any article. This allows the scientific community to view, download, distribution of an article in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited, under the term of Creative Commons Attribution License The Table of Contents for Volume 110, Issue 10 of the journal Birth Defects Research is now available.. Teratology Society members who have a subscription to BDR may access the full articles via the Teratology website using your member information, by clicking HERE.. Individuals without a subscription may peruse the TOC, abstracts, and any freely available papers and special issues, by. The Journal of Pediatrics has published a new study looking at the survival of babies with major birth defects in the United States using data from 1999-2007. (Published February 18, 2015) Updated National Birth Prevalence Estimates for Selected Birth Defects in the United States, 2004-200 A birth defect is a problem that occurs when a baby is developing in utero (in the womb). Approximately 1 out of every 33 babies in the United States is born with a birth defect.. Birth defects.

Birth Defects Researc

Journal of Birth Defects' journal/conference profile on Publons, with several reviews by several reviewers - working with reviewers, publishers, institutions, and funding agencies to turn peer review into a measurable research output We also categorized birth defects as isolated, multiple, or syndromic. Isolated birth defects were those occurring only in the same anatomic system or only as a consequence of the primary birth defect (e.g., talipes equinovarus in association with spina bifida). Multiple birth defects were unrelated defects occurring in 2 or more anatomic systems The Table of Contents for Volume 112, Issue 8 of the journal Birth Defects Research is now available.. Society for Birth Defects Research and Prevention (BDRP) members who have a subscription to BDR may access the full articles via the BDRP website using your member information, by clicking HERE.. Individuals without a subscription may peruse the current and past issue tables of contents.

Get Early Access to Journal It's a Birth Defect. Emma Elizabeth Halliday. Follow. May 29. Society for Birth Defects Research and Prevention Mission. The mission of the Society is to understand the cause and pathogenesis of structural and functional birth defects, developmental delays, perinatal death, and other disorders of developmental and reproductive origin in order to prevent their occurrence and improve diagnosis and treatment by promoting multi-disciplinary research and.

James G. Wilson Publication Award. This award honors James G. Wilson, one of the founding Society members, and is presented in recognition of the best paper accepted or published in the journal Birth Defects Research during the prior year.The dual purpose of the award is to provide recognition to the author(s) of the best paper and to encourage authors trained in various disciplines to submit. Surgical birth defects including cleft lip/cleft palate and neural tube defects were the commonest birth defects. Similarly, Ekanem et al. 10 in a review of birth registers reported a total of 452 cases of birth malformations of 127 929 recorded births Birth defects original article series RG Journal Impact: data not available * *This value is calculated using ResearchGate data and is based on average citation counts from work published in this.

Unified Birth Defects Research Journal Coming January 2017. Sonja A. Rasmussen, MD, MS Dear Teratology Society Members: We want to share with you the exciting news about the formal merger of Birth Defects Research (BDR) into a single journal. Many of you heard about this at the annual business meeting, but for the. Workers in various industries can be exposed to oil mists when oil-based fluids are aerosolized during work processes. Oil mists can be inhaled or deposited on the skin. Little research exists on the reproductive effects of oil mist exposure in pregnant workers. We aimed to investigate associations between occupational oil mist exposure in early pregnancy and a spectrum of birth defects using. The Standard Abbreviation (ISO4) of Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology is Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.. Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology should be cited as Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol. for abstracting, indexing and referencing purposes birth defects, teratogen, multiple myeloma, leprosy, testing Thalidomide was first marketed in the late 1950s as a sedative and was used in the treatment of nausea in pregnant women ( Fig. 1 ). Within a few years of the widespread use of thalidomide in Europe, Australia, and Japan, approximately 10,000 children were born with phocomelia, leading to the ban of thalidomide in most countries in 1961 Journal Impact 2018 di Birth Defects Research è 1.830 (Ultimi dati nel 2019). Il quartile del fattore di impatto di Birth Defects Research è Q2.Nell'editoria accademica il fattore di impatto (impact factor o IF in inglese e generalmente anche nella normativa e nelle procedure italiane) è un indice sintetico che misura il numero medio di citazioni ricevute in un particolare anno da articoli.

Der Journal Impact 2019 von Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology beträgt 2.320 (neueste Daten im Jahr 2020). Im Vergleich zu historischen Journal Impact ist der Journal Impact 2019 von Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology um 24.06 % gestiegen. Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology Journal Impact Quartile: Q1 Even minor heart defects are associated with long-term problems in adulthood Date: June 29, 2020 Source: University of Helsinki Summary: Long-term morbidity as well as a lower level of education.

The study, published in BMJ, a medical journal, found associations between certain birth defects and two antidepressants—Prozac, or fluoxetine, and Paxil, or paroxetine—taken in the month. Read papers from Birth Defects Research with Read by QxMD. journal Want full text access to this journal? Use Read by QxMD to access full text via your institution or open access sources. Read also provides personalized recommendations to keep you up to date in your field Birth Defects Research Part C-Embryo Today-Reviews Impact Factor, IF, number of article, detailed information and journal factor. ISSN: 1542-975X Birth defects of diethylstilbestrol In 1971, the New England Journal of Medicine published a report showing that seven of eight girls and young women (ages 14 to 22) who had been diagnosed with vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma had been exposed prenatally to DES

Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and

Birth defects, also known as congenital malformations, are abnormalities present at birth. 1 Many birth defects pose profound physical, mental, social and economic hardships on the affected individuals and their families. As of 2013, birth defects were the leading cause of infant mortality in the US and the second-leading cause of under-five mortality. 2 We present an introduction to research. Birth defects affect 1 in 33 babies. Having a child with a birth defect impacts the whole family. Parents of children who have birth defects face unique challenges and desire to make life better for their kids. They also want to help to prevent birth defects in the future. Some of the challenges parents face involve communication with healthcare professionals, quality of life issues, creating. The Standard Abbreviation (ISO4) of Birth Defects Research is Birth Defects Res..ISO 4 (Information and documentation - Rules for the abbreviation of title words and titles of publications) is an international standard, defining a uniform system for the abbreviation of serial publication titles. One major use of ISO 4 is to abbreviate the names of scientific journals A large observational study of 104,605 children born in the UK between 1990 and 2016 found use of macrolides, such as erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin, during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with a 55% increased chance of major birth defects, compared with the use of penicillin (27.7 vs. 17.7 per 1,000)

We know what causes some birth defects, such as Down syndrome and fetal alcohol syndrome.However, for many birth defects, the causes are unknown. 1 Also, we don't fully understand how certain factors might work together to cause birth defects. While there is still more work to do, we have learned a lot about birth defects through past research Romy van de Putte, Iris A L M van Rooij, Cynthia P Haanappel, Carlo L M Marcelis, Han G Brunner, Marie-Claude Addor, Clara Cavero-Carbonell, Carlos M Dias, Elizabeth S Draper, Larraitz Etxebarriarteun, Miriam Gatt, Babak Khoshnood, Agnieszka Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Kari Klungsoyr, Jenny J Kurinczuk, Anna Latos-Bielenska, Karen Luyt, Mary T O'Mahony, Nicola Miller, Carmel Mullaney, Vera Nelen. Birth defects are a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality and contribute substantially to long-term disability. One out of every 33 babies is born with some type of birth defect. Despite decades of research on environmental, behavioral and genetic. ogle Scholar databases. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: Studies were included for review if they were written in English, included a comparison population of patients not exposed to ondansetron, and reported human data, original research, exposure to ondansetron during the first trimester, and structural birth defects as an outcome. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: A total of 423 records were.

Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews

  1. Birth defects are the leading cause of infant mortality and have been so for the past 25 y, causing 22% of all infant deaths. Approximately 3-4% of all live births are affected by a birth defect; the etiologies of most of them are unknown (1, 2).The relationship between serious birth defects and their prevention by folic acid is well established
  2. Accordingly, the journal Birth Defects Research takes an integrated, multidisciplinary approach in its organization and publication strategy. The journal contains separate sections for clinical and molecular teratology, developmental and reproductive toxicology, and reviews in developmental biology to acknowledge and accommodate the integrative nature of research in this field
  3. Diabetes mellitus and birth defects. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2008; 199 (3):237 e231-239. [PMC free article] Cragan JD, Gilboa SM. Including prenatal diagnoses in birth defects monitoring: Experience of the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program. Birth defects research Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology
  4. Annual Reports The National Birth Defects Prevention Network publishes its annual report in a special issue of Birth Defects Research Part A. The annual report includes directory information for birth defects programs, state-specific data on 45 selected birth defects, and journal articles on birth defects surveillance and epidemiology
  5. Journal description. John Wiley & Sons and the Teratology Society are please to announce a new journal, Birth Defects Research. This new journal is a comprehensive resource of original research.

Birth Defects Research | Page 3 • journal. BACKGROUND: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare musculoskeletal birth defect with a prevalence of 2.61 per 10,000 in the United States. There is limited evidence for ambient air pollutants in the etiology of CDH in humans Defining Defects There is no universally accepted definition of what constitutes a birth defect. The term is sometimes limited to apparent structural problems, but often is expanded to include defects in function, metabolism, or body chemistry that lead to physical or mental problems or to death National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997 through 2005. Flow diagram showing study participation rates and exclusion criteria for case and control participants, leading to final sample size included in this analysis. Broussard. Opioid analgesics and risk for birth defects. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011

Birth Defects Research Journal Impact 2019-20 Factor

  1. She was the winner of the 2016-2017 James G. Wilson Publication award for best paper published in the journal Birth Defects Research. Cheryl S. Broussard , PhD, is an epidemiologist and associate Director for Science in the Division of Congenital and Developmental Disorders of the NCBDDD at the CDC in Atlanta, Georgia
  2. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 2013-10-01, Volume 144, Issue 4, Most clinicians do not focus on patients with birth defects because they might be only a small fraction of their overall patient population. Yet each of us has a few.
  3. Background In the last two decades, India has witnessed a substantial decrease in infant mortality attributed to infectious disease and malnutrition. However, the mortality attributed to birth defects remains constant. Studies on the prevalence of birth defects such as neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India have reported inconsistent results
  4. Birth defects. Our study included 22 birth defect categories with the overall birth defect rate defined as any one birth defect. Table 1 and Figure 1 show the mean birth defect rates for each maternal LMP month. Birth defect rates were higher when mother's LMP was April-July
  5. BACKGROUND: Individuals with congenital heart defects (CHDs) have high hospital resource use. We sought to identify factors associated with hospital costs and multiple hospitalizations among individuals with CHDs. METHODS: Data from the 2006 to 2011 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Arkansas State Inpatient Databases were linked across encrypted patient identifiers to develop a cohort of.

Birth Defects Research - SCImago Journal Ran

  1. Journal of Birth Defects defrays those costs from article-processing charges (APCs) payable by authors once the manuscript has been accepted for publication. Journal of Birth Defects does not have subscription charges for its research content, believing instead that immediate, world-wide, barrier-free, open access to the full text of research articles is in the best interests of the scientific.
  2. Datos de la revista Título de la revista BIRTH DEFECTS RESEARCH Editorial WILEY Especialidad BIOLOGÍA Digital Si Años 2017- IP Acceso a la publicación U..
  3. Nonetheless, cancer epidemiology in children with birth defects is not well characterized. Methods. Using data from population‐based registries in 4 US states, this study compared children with cancer but no birth defects (n = 13,111) with children with cancer and 1 or more nonsyndromic birth defects (n = 1616)
  4. Paternal and joint parental occupational pesticide exposure and spina bifida in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997 to 2002. Stacy M Pettigrew, Erin M Bell, Alissa R Van Zutphen, Carissa M Rocheleau, Gary M Shaw, Paul A Romitti, Andrew Olshan, Philip J Lupo, Aida Soim, Jennifer A Makelarski, Adrian M Michalski, Wayne Sanderso
  5. A quick round-up of interesting articles and medical journals that have passed the desk of the Australian Birth Defects publications manager this month
  6. Birth Defects Not all birth defects can be prevented. But a woman can increase her own chance of having a healthy baby. Many birth defects happen very early in pregnancy, sometimes before a woman even knows she is pregnant. Remember that about half of all pregnancies are unplanned

Birth Defects: MedlinePlu

  1. Congenital CMV And Birth Defects. Cytomegalovirus, or CMV, is a very common member of the herpes family of viruses. By age 40, half of the adult population has been infected with CMV
  2. Downs Syndrome Innovations. Down syndrome is a genetic disorder. It is also called trisomy 21. It includes certain birth defects, learning problems, and countenance.A child with mongolism also may have heart defects and problems with vision and hearing.How severe or mild these problems are varies from child to child. Delayed development and behavioural problems are often reported in children.
  3. CDC works to identify causes of birth defects and opportunities to prevent them. By applying a public health approach incorporating three essential elements—surveillance or disease tracking, research to identify causes, and prevention research and programs—we can rapidly translate scientific findings into appropriate public health interventions
  4. use
  5. A new research study published in the British Medical Journal, claims women with high blood pressure during pregnancy are more likely to have children with birth defects

Birth defects research Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology. 2008;82(9):622-626. Czeizel AE, Dudas I. Prevention of the first occurrence of neural-tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. The New England journal of medicine. 1992;327(26):1832-1835 Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common birth defect. NBDPS researchers looked to see if there is a link between fever during pregnancy and CHDs. Among mothers of a baby without a birth defect, one out of 13 had a fever in early pregnancy. For mothers of a baby with a CHD, about one in 12 had a fever in early pregnancy Uncertainty remains regarding the risk of birth defects associated with the different types of ATD, and more data are needed. We previously evaluated the risk of birth defects in a nationwide study of all children in Denmark born from 1996 to 2008 . We extended the cohort and included children born during the 20-year period from 1997 to 2016

A graph theory approach to analyze birth defect association

  1. The proportion of birth defects in Hospital Kuala Lumpur was 3.1% (n = 1056). The commonest involved were the hematology system, (157.7 per 10,000 births), the central nervous system.
  2. Taking folic acid before and during pregnancy can reduce the risk of certain birth defects. These include spina bifida, anencephaly, and some heart defects. Experts recommend women who can become pregnant or who plan to become pregnant take at least 400 micrograms (µg) of folic acid every day, even if they are not expecting to become pregnant
  3. Original Article from The New England Journal of Medicine — First-Trimester Use of Selective Serotonin-Reuptake Inhibitors and the Risk of Birth Defects
  4. A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause. Birth defects may result in disabilities that may be physical, intellectual, or developmental. The disabilities can range from mild to severe. Birth defects are divided into two main types: structural disorders in which problems are seen with the shape of a body part and functional.
  5. Read Diabetes mellitus and birth defects, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips

Generally, congenital birth defects are thought to be caused by a combination of insults, including genetic susceptibilities, metabolic anomalies, toxic environment and maternal lifestyle influences. Both inherited and acquired defects are present at birth, but recent progress is beginning to uncover the underlying in utero genetic causes of numerous inherited birth defects (2020). The effects of preconception examinations on birth defects: a population-based cohort study in Dongguan City, China. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine: Vol. 33, No. 16, pp. 2691-2696

BDR Connection : Blogs : Birth Defects Research Volume 112

The study, published Wednesday in the medical journal BMJ, found an increased risk of birth defects in the children of women who were prescribed macrolides during the first three months of. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2020; 105 (4): e1272 DOI: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa076 Christa E. Flück, Shaheena Parween, Maria Natalia Rojas Velazquez, Amit V. Pandey

In this study, led by Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, researchers provide a better understanding of cancer risk in children with birth defects sk factors for birth defects are categorized as modifiable and nonmodifiable. Modifiable risk factors require thorough patient education/counseling. The strongest risk factors, such as age, family history, and a previously affected child, are usually nonmodifiable. Objective This review focuses on risk factors for birth defects including alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, smoking, obesity.

Results. The cumulative incidence of birth defects was not significantly different in children exposed to MMI (6.8%, P = 0.6) or PTU (6.4%, P = 0.4) vs non-exposed (8.0%).For subtypes of birth defects, MMI was associated with an increased incidence of septal heart defects (P = 0.02).PTU was associated with ear (P = 0.005) and obstructive urinary system malformations (P = 0.006) More information: Jeremy M. Schraw et al, Cancer diagnostic profile in children with structural birth defects: An assessment in 15,000 childhood cancer cases, Cancer (2020).DOI: 10.1002/cncr.3298

Reproductive Technologies and the Risk of Birth Defects NEJ

A new study from the University of Georgia has shown that exposure to a now-banned flame retardant can alter the genetic code in sperm, leading to major health defects in children of exposed parents Birth defects: Beyond utopia Birth defects: Beyond utopia Krap, Laurence E. 1983-12-01 00:00:00 American Journal of Medical Genetics 16:451-453 (1983) Genetic Drift Laurence E. Karp In the United States, as in many Western societies, considerable amounts of time, money, and effort are being expended toward the prevention and treatment of birth defects, and that certainly is appropriate Original Article from The New England Journal of Medicine — Use of Selective Serotonin-Reuptake Inhibitors in Pregnancy and the Risk of Birth Defects Items: 1 to 200 of 350 1

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2008) Update on overall prevalence of major birth defects-Atlanta, Georgia, 1978-2005. Morb Mort Wkly Rep 1: 57. Yoon PW, Rasmussen SA, Lynberg MC, Moore CA, Anderka M, et al. (2001) The national birth defects prevention study. Public Health Rep 116: 32-40 Environmental Health Perspectives is an Open Access journal published by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Birth Defects and Mothers' Proximity to Natural Gas Development: Is There a Connection? Lindsey Konkel; Lindsey Konkel. Search for more papers by this author

Birth Defects: Original Article Serie

Children more resilient against coronavirus, study reveals Texas team reviews 131 studies of children from 26 countries Date: June 26, 2020 Source Birth defects cannot always be prevented, but there are many aspects of prenatal care that can protect your unborn baby. If your baby does have a birth defect or fetal condition, treatments are now available that have revolutionized an affected baby's ability to survive and thrive after birth Yet many birth defects are not detectable a t birth and do riot become evident until childhood or maturity. For example, most cases of congenital diabetes do not appear until after age 4O! Birth defects destroy 500,000 babies each year before they are born and cause the death of a t least 60,000 children and adults Scientific studies suggest that children with birth defects are at increased risk of cancer. However, it has not been assessed whether the type of cancer, the age at which they are diagnosed or. Read Vascular disruption birth-defects and history of prenatal cocaine exposure: A case control study, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips

The Australian Birth Defects Society is a non-profit organisation, run by a group of professionals, which aims to inform both the public and medical professionals about the latest news, academic findings, facts and advice for pregnant women and families Birth Defects Journal Freeware MB Free Astrology Birth Chart v.1.35 MB Free Astrology Birth Chart Software is a free astrology birth chart generator software based on the principles of western astrology and Vedic astrology Published today in the journal Nature Biotechnology, the scientists were able to show that bioengineered uteri in an animal model developed the native tissue-like structures needed to support.

Latest articles in this journal Maternal, pregnancy, and neonatal outcomes for women with Turner syndrome. Kaylee Ramage, Kirsten Grabowska, Candice Silversides, Hude Quan, Amy Metcalfe . Published: 11 June 2020. Birth Defects Research; doi:10.1002/bdr2.1744 . Show/hide abstract A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause. Birth defects may result in disabilities that may be physical, intellectual, or developmental. Disabilities can range from mild to severe. Most babies are born healthy, but when a baby has a condition that is present from birth, it is. Preclinical studies in animals did not identify a risk for birth defects associated with this compound. 21 As of January 31, 2019, the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (APR) has reported 1. In humans, birth defects, such as hypospadias were observed in children of DES daughters. The aim of this research was to assess the birth defects in children of DES sons Researchers examined data on birth defects for almost 290,000 infants born in Ohio from 2006 to 2010, matching these records with air pollution measurements near mothers' homes

Op-Ed: WHO refuses to release reports on DU and cancer in IraqCommon chemical linked to rare birth defect in miceHouse cleaning chemicals may cause birth defectsRheumatoid Arthritis Drug Diminishes Zika Birth Defects inMother’s obesity can up risk for major birth defects, saysLow Birth Weight Associated with Higher Incidence ofPregnancy drug maker Duchesnay financially linked to

Study Population. Since 1976, the Slone Epidemiology Unit Birth Defects Study has interviewed mothers of live-born infants with malformations in 80 maternity or tertiary care hospitals in the. Birth defects detected prenatally increase the probability of elective pregnancy termination, and mothers in certain groups, such as women in poverty or those with poorer access to care, may have less knowledge of prenatal defects (Cragan and Khoury, 2000, Cragan and Gilboa, 2009); mothers in mountaintop mining areas may therefore have been less likely to terminate a pregnancy if poorer. Major birth defects were noted in 21.55 per 1,000 children, whose mothers were taking macrolides, and 17.36 per 1,000 children whose mothers were taking penicillins during pregnancy. Among those who took macrolides in their first trimester, 27.7 per 1,000 births had major birth defects, as compared to 19.5 per 1,000 who took macrolides in their second or third trimester Everyone who reads RxISK posts will know that SSRI and related drugs (some antibiotics, painkillers, antihistamines and most antidepressants) can cause sexual dysfunction. This has been known since 1961. And that they can cause suicide. This has been known since 1959. And that they can cause birth defects. The first publication by an Australian obstetrician, William McBride, on this dates from. Previous studies have proposed that complex birth defects like NTDs are likely omnigenic, involving interconnected gene regulatory networks with associated signals throughout the genome. Advances in technologies have allowed researchers to more critically investigate regulatory gene networks in ever increasing detail, informing our understanding of the genetic basis of NTDs

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